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By Dr. Gerhard Meier, Professor Dr. Erich Sackmann, Dr. J. G. Grabmaier (auth.)

Over the prior ten years liquid crystals have attracted a lot curiosity and enormous growth has been made with admire to our wisdom during this box. the new improvement was once initiated frequently by means of the paintings of J. L. Fergason and G. H. Heilmeier, who mentioned the significance of liquid crystals for thermographic and electro­ optic functions. the 1st a part of this ebook is a quick advent to the physics of liquid crystals. The buildings and homes of the 3 simple kinds of liquid crystals are mentioned. a different paragraph is dedicated to electric-field results, that are vital in demonstrate purposes. The bankruptcy on medical functions supplies an perception into the aptitude functions of liquid crystals in basic study, with specific emphasis on explaining the foundations concerned. teams of strength purposes are mentioned intimately: 1. using liquid crystals as anisotropic solvent for the selection of molecular homes through spectroscopy, and a pair of. their use in analytical chemistry, rather in gasoline chromatography. The opposite approach includes using the dissolved molecules as microscopic probes within the research of the dynamical molecular constitution of anisotropic fluid platforms (e.g. organic membranes). This very important approach can be described.

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Applications of Liquid Crystals

During the last ten years liquid crystals have attracted a lot curiosity and enormous development has been made with recognize to our wisdom during this box. the hot improvement was once initiated mostly via the paintings of J. L. Fergason and G. H. Heilmeier, who mentioned the significance of liquid crystals for thermographic and electro­ optic functions.

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The order parameters determined by the two different methods (a) and (b) 50 E. Sackmann agree within 10% [72]. Once the order parameter is known, the anisotropic proton and l3C coupling constants in perinaphthenyl radical can be determined. 5. Other Applications Haustein et al. [78] showed recently that the liquid crystal method can also be applied to study properties of electrolytically generated radicals. Dinse et al. [79] succeeded in measuring ENDOR spectra in room·temperature nematogenes. The ENDOR technique enables one to study radicals of low symmetry.

By considering only CH-bond vibrations on the dipolar coupling constant stretching and bending as important, these authors postulated that the vibrations affect primarily the C-H coupling constants rather than the H-H-interactions. 8% larger than the H-H-distances. 3. Experimental Procedure and Methods of Spectrum Analysis Experimental: NMR spectra in nematic solvents can be taken with standard high resolution spectrometers. The magnetic fields used for the nmr experiments suffice to produce a uniform orientation of the liquid crystal.

Sackmann substrates with paper, cloth or leather. The molecules (or the directors) of the liquid crystals tend to align parallel to the direction in which the surfaces have been rubbed. Excellent alignment is also achieved by grinding the glass surfaces with diamond paste [19]. Homogeneous oriented nematic layers have been used for uv and infrared spectroscopic studies [20,21] . Cholesteric phases can also be ordered between glass plates. By the application of a small pressure a so called layered or "Grandjean" texture is obtained: in this texture the nematic layers of the cholesteric phase orient parallel to the surface, that is the helix (or optic) axis points in a direction normal to the glass surface.

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