By H. Ahmed
This new version of Ahmed and Spreadbury's first-class textbook Electronics for Engineers offers, just like the first version, an advent to digital circuits protecting the early a part of measure point classes in electronics and electric engineering. The textual content of the 1st variation has been entensively revised and supplemented to carry it modern; totally new chapters were extra with regards to electronic electronics. a primary bankruptcy at the basic ideas of sign dealing with in digital circuits is by means of descriptions of amplifiers utilizing field-effect and bipolar transistors and built-in circuit op-amps, written from the perspective of the engineering pupil increase a procedure. next chapters speak about the rules of making use of unfavorable and optimistic suggestions in amplifiers, prime the reader to the ultimate chapters masking electronic circuits and their purposes. All chapters finish with a solved challenge by means of a couple of perform questions from numerous universities to which solutions are given. This new version, just like the first, will turn out a useful textual content for first and moment 12 months classes in universities and polytechnics on electronics and electric engineering and may be beneficial to training engineers and scientists who have to use analogue and electronic chips during their paintings.
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Extra info for Analogue and Digital Electronics for Engineers: An Introduction
A) Frequency is low, so o) in the denominator of the expression makes the complex part <^ 1. So Gain = ^ Note that this is real. Therefore there is no phase shift associated with the circuit gain at low frequencies. This is plotted in fig. 22 as region (a). (b) At a frequency 0) = w2, when the imaginary part of denominator = 1, 1 or - - R\ "I" J\9 * **" ctoft - r. (U8) /I 1 O\ then the expression for gain becomes Gain = ^ = j-^r = % ^ vi 1 + j . 7075 L -45°. Fig. 21 shows the conversion from cartesian to polar co-ordinates.
0 - Typ. ( r , = 140 °C) / Typ. 0 Fig. 3. The forward characteristic of a BY 126 silicon diode. 08 pA at VR = 450 V, T= 25 °C. Many semiconductors utilise these properties in their operation and detailed analytic discussion of the topics may be found in books on the physics of semiconductor devices. In this section we present a qualitative discussion of the subject. If the two sides of the p-n junction are doped uniformly and the doping levels are equal, then the extent of the depletion layer will be the same on either side of the junction.
Fig. 22 shows how the reactive components most commonly present in amplifiers and in their input and output coupling circuits affect the gain of the circuit at extremes of frequency. The drop in gain at low frequency can be avoided by a little extra circuit complexity but that at high frequencies cannot be avoided. In the graph of gain magnitude against frequency, the relationship approximates to one broken into lines of different slopes. The frequencies at which the breaks occur can be easily calculated and form the basis for determining the extent of the band where the gain is reasonably constant.