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With molecules in the higher ranges of molecular weight typical experimental run times are of the order of a minute or so. Such short experiments help very much in reducing the chance of scattering from a dust particle which are always unavoidably present to some extent in the solutions. An early example of the method was the determination of the translational diffusion coefficient of the protein haemocyanin from Murex trunculus (Foord et al, 1970). For example, at a concentration of 1-5 ml" 1 the value of D20W was calculated to be 1Ό3±001 x 10~7 cm2 s" 1 from a 10 s experiment.

N-Heptane· nitrobenzene, ΐφ (Brumberger and Pancirov, 1965). n-Hexane-nitrobenzene, ΓΔ (Cher and Polonsky-Ostrowsky, 1973). Phenol-water, ΓΦ (Pusey and Goldburg, 1969). Nitro ethane-3-methyl pentane, 1Δ (Wimms, 1973). Data compiled by H. Z. Cummins (private communication). This is beginning to enter the region where non-Gaussian scattering will affeci the validity of the Siegert relation and we may expect such non-Gaussiar scattering to be observed and studied in the near future. The application of photon-correlation spectroscopy to this field of study ii already well established (Chen and Polonski-Ostrowski, 1969; Goldburg anc Pusey, 1972; Mohr and Langley, 1972).

4 ( 1 + |£ ( 1 ) (T)| 2 )COS 2 COT (97) K } which varies from \ at r = 0 to zero as τ -> oo. Fitting to the function (78) leads to an overall gain in the relative variance of a linewidth measurement of 10 when heterodyning is used. The effect of clipping is to reduce this factor if nc » 1 to about 7. VI. APPLICATIONS The practical use of photon-counting techniques in optics has expanded extremely rapidly, from their first use less than a decade ago in basic experi­ ments of mainly theoretical interest concerned with the statistical properties of optical radiation, to present-day applications in a wide range of scientific 40 E.

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