By Helen M. Kingston
This ABC is a concise, hugely illustrated advent to genetic mechanisms serious about inherited problems. the hot variation has been generally up-to-date with new and revised chapters to surround speedy advances within the box. easy genetic ideas are defined besides the applying of latest applied sciences in medical perform. info on proper websites also are incorporated besides suggested texts for extra examining.
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Extra info for ABC of Clinical Genetics
The severity of disease caused by mitochondrial mutations probably depends on the relative proportions of wild-type and mutant DNA present, but is very difficult to predict in a given subject. 11 Pedigree of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy caused by a mutation within the mitochondrial DNA. Carrier women transmit the mutation to all their offspring, some of whom will develop the disorder. Affected or carrier men do not transmit the mutation to any of their offspring 8 Estimation of risk in mendelian disorders This chapter gives some examples of simple risk calculations in mendelian disorders.
The number of repeats varies from person to person in the general population, but within the normal range these repeats are stably transmitted. When the number of repeats is increased beyond the normal range, this region becomes unstable with a tendency to increase in size when transmitted to offspring. In some conditions there is a clear distinction between normal and pathological alleles. In others, the expanded alleles may act either as premutations or as full pathological mutations. Premutations do not cause disease but are unstable and likely to expand further when transmitted to offspring.
In mendelian disorders this may present as a patchy phenotype, as in segmental neurofibromatosis type 1. Somatic mutation is also a mechanism responsible for neoplastic change. Germline mosaicism is one explanation for the transmission of a genetic disorder to more than one offspring by apparently normal parents. In these cases the mutation may be confined to the germline cells or may be present in a proportion of somatic cells as well. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, it has been calculated that up to 20% of the mothers of isolated cases, whose carrier tests performed on leucocyte DNA give normal results, may have gonadal mosaicism for the muscular dystrophy mutation.