By Allan Bonnick, Derek Newbold
This article covers all of the vital and well known not obligatory devices of the IMI Technical certificate and NVQ point 1 & 2 syllabus, from overall healthiness and protection laws to fault discovering and changing parts. totally up to date, it additionally has automobile upkeep tactics built-in all through, making it the imperative first lecture room and workshop textual content for all scholars of motorcar engineering, apprentices and prepared amateurs. The textual content is made obtainable to all degrees of skill via its transparent, logical method, first-class illustrations and step by step improvement of idea and perform. there's suggestions on getting ready portfolios of proof, and sensible workouts are integrated to illustrate real workshop perform. *
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Additional info for A practical approach to motor vehicle engineering and maintenance
31) seals the gap left between the piston and the cylinder wall. Made from high-grade centrifugally cast iron, it is split to enable the ring to be assembled onto the piston. Some rings may be coated on their outer edge with chromium to give better wear characteristics and longer life. Normally three rings are fitted. The top compression ring takes most of the compression pressure and forms the first defence against the heat and escaping gases. It may be stepped so that it misses the ridge that tends to form in the cylinder bore at TDC.
40 Heat is generated by dry friction two materials where very little lubrication is present (Fig. 41). Fluid friction (hydrodynamic friction) A film of fluid prevents contact between two materials, for example between the rotating crankshaft journal and the bearing. A film of oil under pressure ensures that the two metal surfaces slide over one another. The only friction that occurs is between the oil particles themselves. These have less resistance to sliding over one another than solid surfaces have.
It mixes rapidly with the air until self-ignition occurs near TDC. Second stroke (piston moving downwards) The rapidly expanding gases force the piston downwards. The exhaust valves are arranged Engines and lubrication Piston falling exhaust open transfer port open. Mixture transferred from crankcase. Exhaust port Compression above piston Piston rising induction into crankase Transfer port Inlet port Transfer and exhaust piston at BDC Both ports closed piston rising on compression Fig. 8 The two-stroke cycle of operations to open just before the piston uncovers the inlet ports.