Download A History of Medicine, Second Edition by Lois N. Magner PDF

By Lois N. Magner

Stressing significant topics within the historical past of drugs, this moment variation explores the occasions, methodologies, and theories that formed scientific practices in a long time previous and in glossy scientific perform. It highlights practices of civilizations world wide and learn of pioneering scientists and physicians who contributed to our present realizing of wellbeing and fitness and sickness. New sections hide preventive and replacement drugs, scientific schooling for girls, miasma and contagion theories, the specter of epidemic ailment, altering styles of morbidity and mortality, public well-being and sanitary reforms, the excessive fee of treatment, illnesses of affluence and getting older, and the emergence of latest illnesses.

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Pharmacists traced the origin of their art to Isis, who had imparted the secrets of remedies to her son Horus. All who participated in the work of the Houses of Life attached to the temples, as well as the embalming establishments, claimed the god Anepu as their patron. However, responsibility for the ‘‘necessary art’’ as a whole was eventually ascribed to Imhotep, the first physician known to us by name. A prodigy and master of all fields of learning, Imhotep designed and built the famous Step Pyramid of Sakkara, served the Pharaoh Zoser (or Djoser, r.

Some of the roads were probably constructed four thousand to five thousand years ago to link the cities of Mesopotamia to neighboring settlements and distant farmlands. In Sumer, the mastery of agricultural techniques led to dramatic changes in population density and the establishment of the bureaucratic apparatus needed for planning, storage, and redistribution of crops. The great mass of people lived as peasants, but their productivity supported a small urban elite of priests, warriors, and noblemen.

Within their tombs, wealthy Egyptians were surrounded by grave goods meant to provide for their comforts in the next world. In addition to the treasures that lured grave robbers (and archaeologists) to even the most well-protected tombs, mummies were accompanied by ‘‘texts’’ painted on the walls of their tombs and coffins and written texts known as the Book of the Dead. These ‘‘books’’ contained collections of spells and maps to guide the recently departed along the path taken by the dead. The tombs of some of Egypt’s earliest known pharaohs provide evidence of human sacrifices.

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