By James Putzel
A CAPTIVE LAND is the 1st significant paintings to handle those questions, pertaining to formerly unpublished Philippine and US executive records and drawing on interviews with executive representatives, landowners and peasants. It deals a brand new and unique research of the level of landlessness, possession, and poverty. It highlights the importance of the clash among conservative and liberal techniques to reform.
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Extra info for A Captive Land: The Politics of Agrarian Reform in the Philippines
Bursting forth in the late nineteenth century, prominent in the policy debates of the Progressive Era of the early twentieth century, it continued post-Arnold in a distinctly secondary role, with antitrusters performing as technicians in comprehensive conceptual and policy frameworks set by others. In broader ways as well, the New Deal had intellectual and policy roots in earlier progressive reform, most basically in the idea that government should be used to address economic and social problems not remediable through and even Page 11 exacerbated by the private economy.
They therefore stood steadfastly in opposition to the antitrust tradition. They also believed, however, based on their study of the economic system in terms of its interconnected operation as a whole, that certain features of the management of large corporations had introduced disruptive changes into the economy, especially by way of price and wage policy. Excessively high prices and low wages, whatever their perceived immediate benefit to individual firms, contributed to a failure of demand and a downward economic spiral.
This was true, in its own fashion, of President Herbert Hoover's analysis. Rejecting a secular view of the depression's origins, Hoover, during his administration and throughout his long life, continued to insist that flaws in the domestic economy were relatively minor, European developments jolted the basically healthy American system, and it was the election of 1932 and the ensuing New Deal that undermined business confidence and caused the depression to persist. The Hoover administration's antidepression policies, accordingly, were mild: initially it urged business to maintain wage standards and purchasing power and then insisted on government budgetary rigor so as to encourage the business confidence that would lead to renewed private investment and consequent recovery.