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E. Hamann, H. Manger, a n d L . Steinke. “Lambda-Sensor with Y,O-Stabilized 210,-Ceramic,” SAE Congress, Paper 770401, February 28. 1977. Detroit, Mich. ’W. ” SAE Congress, Paper 770400, February 28, 1977, Detroit, Mich. * J . Newman, Elecrrochemicul Sysrems; pp. 184-87. , 1973. 9K. Vetter, Electrochemical Kinetics: Theoretical and Experimental Aspects; pp. 732-47. , New York, 1967. ‘OW. Fleming, “Zirconia Oxygen Sensor: An Equivalent Circuit Model. ’‘ Paper to be presented at the 1980 SAE Congress, Detroit, Michigan, February 25, 1980.
1. 279 A i r Reference Electrode Exhaust Gas Electrode pCO'(exh), Pt 2CO;(exh 1 f 2COYads) + 20' (ads) 1 1 Pt, Stabilized Zr02 pO2(ref) I I I I- L +I "co- Fig. 5. Electrochemical reactions corresponding to a carbon monoxide cell. I I Zero Chemical Reaction 1oOo. 0 v) 200 - 0 16 1 L c W 14 15 AIR-FUEL RATIO I = > 13 \ Sensor\ Voltage 13 U I ti \A 14 I 15 AIR-FUEL RATIO (B) (A) '\ g1 Fig. 6. Comparison of theoretical voltage curves for a carbon monoxide cell to the characteristic curve of an actual sensor (A) Range of possible values for the partial pressure of carbon monoxide, (B) corresponding theoretical CO-cell voltage curves computed from Eq.
Alnico also has a low temperature coefficient and high stability over its operating range. Alnico magnets are, therefore, quite useful for precise timing applications, such as an automotive ignition distributor trigger. Alnico magnets are indicated for configurations requiring the use of a read head (including the sensing coil) separated from the Wiegand wire as, for example, in a high-resolution pulse generator employing a multiplicity of Wiegand wires on a rotating drum. This configuration can also yield an intermediate level of angular accuracy, depending largely on the exactness of placement of the Wiegand wires.